Skyscrapers are buildings that have at least 40 floors and a height of more than 150 meters. It should be noted that a minimum height of 150 meters is used as a criterion for defining skyscrapers. Buildings with a height of fewer than 150 meters are referred to as high-rise buildings.
Building a skyscraper is very expensive. Buildings taller than 200 or 400 meters have unexperienced issues and large scale. The cost of skyscraper projects is not limited to materials or installation and technical items. There are many unpredictable issues in the implementation process. In addition, heavy maintenance costs are added, which is very high. That’s why skyscrapers are usually built by governments.
One of the reasons for high ranking in the world is the migration of people to cities and increasing population density. Another common reason for elevating is to build a dual-purpose urban symbol. The first is as a building that is an identity, a source of pride, and a symbol for the city, and the second as a sign that can be used to position or address in simpler language. Elevation may also be done for tourism purposes. The most successful example of this is the Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia. These skyscrapers, which were the tallest skyscrapers in the world until 2004, became one of the main reasons for attracting tourists to Malaysia. However, its special architecture and various advertisements, such as Mission Impossible – Ghost Protocol, have not been ineffective. Today, with the intensification of competition among skyscrapers, the risk of remaining at the top has reached less than two or three years. In fact, attracting tourists with the title of “highest” is unlikely.
Tall buildings require more care than shorter buildings and take more time and energy. In London, for example, which is built almost entirely on sandy soil, unlike Manhattan, New York, which is built on rock, the foundation is very difficult to lay. There’s also the issue of carbon emissions and energy deterioration in these buildings due to the cooling and heating of the occupants inside, which is about 20% more than in medium-sized buildings.
If all this sounds like a lot, then the question of why skyscrapers are still being sold because they are good for the environment! Some of the justifications for this are related to volume; For example, it is said that if you put several houses or workplaces in one tall building, it will be possible to use the spaces or public transportation will be more useful. These reasons may be a little real, but you can use the amount of space without buildings with more than 12 floors.
Since the issue of latent energy is not as important as the energy used, skyscrapers can easily pass this charge. For this reason, it seems plausible to designers and the public that a large amount of land has been dug up, its materials dumped, and the same amount of greenhouse gases injected into the ground; because it creates architectural masterpieces and is a public delight. However, subsequent centuries will have to pay off the debt taken from the earth as carbon enters the atmosphere, and it may be too late to do so.
There is another definition of the environment that prefers human beings to those around them. You go from a crowded place to a soulless lobby, a long way to another lobby, a space with a flat floor and no charm. If you are very lucky, there is a balcony that is also at war with the environment. Good design may solve some of these problems, but good design is very rare in very tall buildings.
Skyscrapers sell with their own facade; a view that is better on the upper floors and makes the sale price more expensive. But in practice, it has shown several destructive physical experiences, one of which is the spread of viruses through air conditioners and enclosed spaces. Architecture is not just about what you see.
However, the towers will still be built; an annual survey in London identified 525 20-story buildings on the horizon that were either under construction or in the process of being built.
In Jeddah, a large concrete object is being built in the desert, which is probably the first building in the world with a height of kilometers.